Gen Ricardo Sanchez Orders Torture in Iraq: His Memo
Editor's Note: The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) has written to Attorney General Alberto Gonzales, asking him to open a perjury investigation of Lt. Gen. Ricardo Sanchez, the former US Military commander in Iraq.
According to an official memo dated September 14, 2003, and signed by Gen. Sanchez, he personally authorized the use of coercive interrogation techniques outlawed by the Geneva Conventions. In sworn testimony before the Senate Armed Services committee, he denied ever approving such techniques in Iraq.
The ACLU obtained a physical copy of the memo by suing the Defense Department under the Freedom of Information Act. Below, you will find a copy from the ACLU along with a typed transcript prepared by t r u t h o u t. - sw
September Sanchez Memo
Department of Defense
Sunday 14 September 2003
Department of the Army
Headquarters, Combined Joint Task Force Seven
Camp Victory, Baghdad, Iraq
APO AE 09335
14 SEP 2003
MEMORANDUM FOR Commander, U.S. Central Command, 7115 South Boundary Boulevard, MacDill Air Force Base, Florida 33621-5101
SUBJECT: CJTF-7 Interrogation and Counter-Resistance Policy
Ricardo S. Sanchez
Lieutenant General, U.S. Army
Combined Joint Task Force Seven
APO AE 09335
14 SEP 2003
C2, Combined Joint Task Force Seven, Baghdad, Iraq 09335
C3, Combined Joint Task Force Seven, Baghdad, Iraq 09335 Commander, 205th Military Intelligence Brigade, Baghdad, Iraq 09335
SUBJECT: CJTF-7 Interrogation and Counter-Resistance Policy
S/NF)(U) This memorandum establishes the interrogation and counter-resistance policy for CJTF-7.
S/NF)(U) I approve the use of specified interrogation and counter-resistance techniques A-DD, as described in enclosure 1, subject to the following:
S/NF)(U) These techniques must be used within safeguards described in enclosure 2.
S/NF)(U) Use of these techniques is limited to interrogations of detainees, security internees and enemy prisoners of war under the control of CJTF-7.
S/NF)(U) Use of techniques B, I, O, Y, AA and CC on enemy prisoners of war must be approved by me personally prior to use. Submit written requests for use of these techniques, with supporting rationale, to me through the CJTF-7 C2. A legal review of CJTF-7 5JA must accompany each request.
S/NF)(U) CJTF-7 is operating in a theater of war in which the Geneva Conventions are applicable. Coalition forces will continue to treat all persons under their control humanely.
S/NF)(U) Requests for use of techniques not listed in enclosure 1 will be submitted to me through the CJTF-7 C2, and include a description of the proposed technique and recommended safeguards. A legal review from the CJTF-7 SJA must accompany each request.
S/NF)(U) Nothing in this policy limits existing authority for maintenance of good order and discipline among detainees.
S/NF)(U) POC is (redacted) DNVT (redacted) DSN (redacted)
Richardo S. Sanchez
Lieutenant General, USA
1. Interrogation Techniques
2. General Safeguards
CF: Commander, US Central Command
S/NF)(U) The use of techniques A-CC are subject to the general safeguards as provided below as well as specific implementation guidelines to be provided by the 205th MI BDE Commander. Specific implementation guidance with respect to techniques A-CC is provided in U.S. Army Field Manual 34-52. Further implementation guidance will be developed by 205th MI BDE Commander.
S/NF)(U) Of the techniques set forth below, the policy aspects of certain techniques should be considered to the extent they reflect the views of other Coalition contributing nations. The description of the technique is annotated to include some policy issues that should be considered before application of the technique.
S/NF)(U) Direct: Asking straightforward questions.
S/NF)(U) Incentive/Removal of Incentive: Providing a reward or removing a privilege, above and beyond those that are required by the Geneva Convention, from detainees. [Caution: Other nations that believe detainees are entitled to EPW protection may consider that provision and retention of religious items (e.g. the Koran) are protected under international law (see, Geneva III, Article 34).]
S/NF)(U) Emotional Love: Playing on the love a detainee has for an individual or group.
S/NF)(U) Emotional Hate: Playing on the hatred a detainee has for an individual or group.
S/NF)(U) Fear Up Harsh: Significantly increasing the fear level in a detainee.
S/NF)(U) Fear Up Mild: Moderately increasing the fear level in a detainee.
S/NF)(U) Reduced Fear: Reducing the fear level in a detainee.
S/NF)(U) Pride and Ego Up: Boosting the ego of a detainee.
S/NF)(U) Pride and Ego Down: Attacking or insulting the ego of a detainee, not beyond the limits that would apply to an EPW. [Caution: Article 17 of Geneva III provides, "Prisoners of war who refuse to answer may not be threatened, insulted, or exposed to any unpleasant or disadvantageous treatment of any kind." Other nations that believe detainees are entitled to EPW protections may consider this technique inconsistent with the provisions of Geneva.]
S/NF)(U) Futility: Invoking the feeling of futility of a detainee.
S/NF)(U) We Know All: Convincing the detainee that the interrogator already knows the answers to questions he asks the detainee.
S/NF)(U) Establish Your Identity: Convincing the detainee that the interrogator has mistaken the detainee for someone else. SECRET//NOFORN
S/NF)(U) Repetition: Continuously repeating the same question to the detainee within interrogation periods of normal duration.
S/NF)(U) File and Dossier: Convincing Detainee that the interrogator has a damning and inaccurate file, which must be fixed.
S/NF)(U) Mutt and Jeff: A team consisting of a friendly and harsh interrogator. The harsh interrogator might employ the Pride and Ego Down technique.[Caution: Other nations that believe that EPW protections apply to detainees may view this technique as inconsistent with Geneva III, Article 13 which provides that EPWs must be protected against acts of intimidation. Consideration should be given to these views prior to application of the technique.]
S/NF)(U) Rapid Fire: Questioning in rapid succession without allowing detainee to answer.
S/NF)(U) Silence: Staring at the detainee to encourage discomfort.
S/NF)(U) Change of Scenery Up: Removing the detainee from the standard interrogation setting (generally to a location more pleasant, but no worse).
S/NF)(U) Change of Scenery Down: Removing the detainee from the standard interrogation setting and placing him in a setting that may be less comfortable; would not constitute a substantial change in environmental quality.
S/NF)(U) Dietary Manipulation: Changing the diet of a detainee; no intended deprivation of food or water; no adverse medical or cultural effect and without intent to deprive subject of food or water, e.g., hot rations to MREs.
S/NF)(U) Environmental Manipulation: Altering the environment to create moderate discomfort (e.g. adjusting temperature or introducing an unpleasant smell). Conditions may not be such that they injure the detainee. Detainee is accompanied by interrogator at all times.
[Caution: Based on court cases in other countries, some nations may view application of this technique in certain circumstances to be inhumane. Consideration of these views should be given prior to use of this technique.]
S/NF)(U) Sleep Adjustment: Adjusting the sleep times of a detainee (e.g. reversing sleep cycles from night to day). This technique is NOT sleep deprivation.
S/NF)(U) False Flag: Convincing the detainee that individuals from a country other than the United States are interrogating him.
S/NF)(U) Isolation: Isolating the detainees from other detainees while still complying with basic standards of treatment. [Caution: the use of isolation as an interrogation technique requires detailed implementation instructions, including specific guidelines regarding the length of isolation, medical and psychological review, and approval for extensions of the length of isolation by the 205th MI BDE Commander. Use of this technique for more than 30 days, whether continuous or not, must be briefed to 205th MI BDE Commander prior to implementation. SECRET//NOFORN
S/NF)(U) Presence of Military Working Dog: Exploits Arab fear of dogs while maintaining security during interrogations. Dogs will be muzzled and under the control of MWD handler at all times to prevent contact with detainee.
S/NF)(U) Sleep Management: Detainee provided minimum 4 hours of sleep per 24 hour period, not to exceed 72 continuous hours.
S/NF)(U) Yelling, Loud Music, and Light Control: Used to create fear, disorient detainee and prolong capture shock. Volume controlled to prevent injury.
S/NF)(U) Deception: Use of falsified representations including documents and reports.
S/NF)(U) Stress Positions: Use of physical postures (sitting, standing, kneeling, prone, ect.) for no more than 1 hour per use. Use of technique(s) will not exceed 4 hours and adequate rest between use of each position will be provided. SECRET//NOFORN
S/NF)(U) Application of these interrogation techniques is subject to the following general safeguards: (i) limited to use at interrogation facilities only; (ii) there is reasonable basis to believe that the detainee possesses critical intelligence; (iii) the detainee is medically and operationally evaluated as suitable (considering all techniques to be used in combination); (iv) interrogators are specifically trained for the technique(s); (v) a specific interrogation plan (including reasonable safeguards, limits on duration, intervals between applications, termination criteria and the presence or availability of qualified medical personnel) has been developed; (vi) there is appropriate supervision; and, (vii) there is appropriate specified senior approval as identified by 205th MI BDE Commander for use with any specified detainee (after considering the foregoing and receiving legal advice).
(U) The purpose of all interviews and interrogations is to get the most information from a detainee with the least intrusive method, always applied in a humane and lawful manner with sufficient oversight by trained investigators or interrogators. Operating instructions must be developed based on command policies to insure uniform, careful, and safe application of interrogations of detainees.
S/NF)(U) Interrogations must always be planned, deliberate actions that take into account factors such as a detainee's current and past performance in both detention and interrogation; a detainee's emotional and physical strengths and weaknesses; assessment of possible approaches that may work on a certain detainee in an effort to gain the trust of the detainee; strengths and weaknesses of interrogators; and implementation by other personnel for a certain detainee based on other factors.
S/NF)(U) Interrogation approaches are designed to manipulate the detainee's emotions and weaknesses to gain his willing cooperation. Interrogation operations are never conducted in a vacuum; they are conducted in close cooperation with the units detaining the individuals. The policies established by the detaining units that pertain to searching, silencing and segregating also play a role in interrogation of the detainee. Detainee interrogation involves developing a plan tailored to an individual and approved by senior interrogators. Strict adherence to policies/standard operating procedures governing the administration or interrogation techniques and oversight is essential.
S/NF)(U) It is important that interrogators be provided reasonable latitude to vary techniques depending on the detainee's culture, strengths, weaknesses, environment, extent of training in resistance techniques as well as the urgency of obtaining information that the detainee is believed to have.
S/NF)(U) While techniques are considered individually within this analysis, it must be understood that in practice, techniques are usually used in combination. The cumulative effect of all techniques to be employed must be considered before any decisions are made regarding approval for particular situations. The title of a particular technique is not always fully descriptive of a particular technique. 205th MI BDE Commander is responsible for oversight of all techniques involving physical contact. SECRET//NOFORN
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